Last week before I left Wyoming, I was fortunate enough to get out in the field with Brian Bedrosian, who is the Avian Program Director at Craighead-Beringia South. The task at hand was to catch a bald eagle, the last push to get the final of six transmitters attached to local bald eagles in the Upper Green River / New Fork River drainages, for a research project that is studying the effects of local energy extraction development on wildlife (aka gas wells aka fracking sights). For more on the details, see here.
We spent 10 hours on the New Fork River on Wednesday, rowing down the low and slow water with Chief, Brian’s dog, directing us.
To the East are the jagged peaks of the Windy Mountain Range, poking above the horizon eerily in the forest fire haze, and they look similar to the drastic edges and slopes found in the Teton Range. Meandering back and forth through the dry high-desert landscape is the New Fork River, a lush riparian zone that is home to many plants and animals, and a literal oasis.Everywhere else around us, as far as the eye can see, are sage-covered hills, slopes and small mesas – a sight which resembles a snapshot from the ocean, just beyond the breakers where the surface of the water is starting to peak and trough into rolling, moving hills of water.
And, also as far as the eye can see, are natural gas extraction pads. So it is that this area is the center of much debate and ecological concern.
We went through three separate bald eagle nesting areas during the float, using a trapping technique called a “float fish.” As we approached a nesting site, and there were eagles perched, we placed in the water upstream of us one or two of the float fish traps, then paddled quickly downstream ahead of them. These traps are essentially fresh-caught trout that have been modified with nooses of fishing wire and attached to a floating log with a few feet between the two. The concept is that when the eagle grabs the fish, the nooses secure around the eagle’s talons. The log is light enough that the bird can fly or swim safely to shore while we make our way back to grab it. Unfortunately the day yielded no results for our primary purpose (bald eagles trapped = 0), but it was a beautiful day to spend on a river. When your “work” entails floating and paddling down a river in August in Wyoming, life is good.
The next morning, we took a different tactic and instead of floating down the river, we selected two known bald eagle perch sites that were accessible by foot. We readied traps early in the morning – with Trapper Haynam joining us, also from Craighead-Beringia South – and before sunrise set them floating in the river below two separate eagle perch sites. After setting the traps we monitored them from not far away, above the river banks.
We then prepared for a long wait.
Suddenly, at 6:20 am, not 20 minutes after we had climbed back up the steep banks of the river to wait in the truck, an adult bald eagle soared over the fish and landed right by it! It seemed to toy with the fish and our emotions for a few moments, then after some careful scrutiny it took off. We hadn’t fooled it. Shortly thereafter a juvenile bald eagle came and circled above the fish a few times, then it was chased off by the resident adults who then perched upstream. It did not look promising.
Now the real waiting began. We had no eagle action after the initial excitement, but we did have several bull moose move through the area, including one who seemed to walk directly over the fish trap. I was worried that maybe we suddenly discovered a mutant carnivorous zombie moose and that we would have to free it from the fishing cord after it tried to eat our fish, but luckily it was the regular non-zombie, plant eating variety.
We decided that our setup was probably not going to attract any further attention from the eagle family, so we retrieved the trap and went to meet up with the rest of our crew at the other trap site that seemed to still hold some promise. The eagles hadn’t seen the fish yet but were in the area, and they had two of their young in the trees around them begging for food. My time there was limited as I had a long drive to do before the day was over, and just as I was about to leave for my drive back to California, we got one!
A hatch year bald eagle went for the fish, and although an adult was the preferred target, it could still be tagged for the study. Things happened VERY fast. We were posted up on a bluff above the river to monitor the trap, so when the bird hit it, we immediately drove down to the river bank, jumped out and ran to get close to it, before approaching the last bit of distance slowly and carefully. First priority was safety of the bird and us, and we didn’t want to create more stress than it was already experiencing. Brian handled it with amazing skill and professionalism. It had grabbed the fish, then when it realized it was caught, it flew/walked/swam over to a gravel bar in the shallow river where it was sitting when we got there.
To minimize stress (for the bird and us!), a falconers hood is placed over the head of the bird. This is also a common technique used in bird rescue and rehabilitation, and during exams of captive birds, because most birds tend to go into a hypnotized state of calm once the hood is over its eyes. The exam and attachment of the transmitter went quickly and smoothly.
After feeding the eagle some trout and giving it some water to be sure it was hydrated after its ordeal, we released the eagle back onto the river. After the hood was removed and it was placed on the ground, it took a few seconds for it to get its bearings, then it flapped its gigantic wings and turned east, getting over a fence and landing in a stand of trees upriver. Mission accomplished.
I must say that I had a lot of mixed feelings about capturing the bird, and about putting a transmitter on it, as the device is attached by strapping it around its body, and it sits on its back like a very small backpack. I find some solace in knowing that professionals like Brian are executing trapping like this in a professional manner and minimizing stress for the birds, and that these birds are participating in studies that could help the lives of many of their kind in the future. Your sacrifice does not go unnoticed.
The visual and auditory impact alone of the gas pads is tremendous on the landscape. The night that we slept there amid them all on BLM land near the river, the remote area looked like it was covered with lots of small towns due to the number of lights. It wasn’t until morning that I realized most of these “towns” were drilling pads, with a few ranches interspersed. During the night, loud explosions occurred with regularity. Many people in the area believe that these extraction processes could be poisoning their air and water. The ethics and methods surrounding energy extraction are hot topics right now, and the long-term impacts on humans and the greater ecosystem have yet to be determined – but I know that I am certainly concerned. Nothing comes without a cost. I urge everyone to educate themselves about this issue and the next time you fill up your gas tank or turn on your stove, take a second to think about where your energy is coming from. And be thankful for it.
Good luck my eagle friend, I look forward to thinking of you and your kind flying free over clean waters for many generations to come.
A young bull moose made his way through the small town of Kelly one evening, calmly browsing on roof-high trees and bushes.
There are more than just grizzlies and wolves in the Tetons.
As if wolves weren’t enough, the next day held more surprises.
I left to go on a final hike that next afternoon, after packing up my jeep and preparing to leave Wyoming. I joked to the project director that I’d seen everything but grizzlies and pumas in Wyoming, so I was going to find one or both that afternoon since my time in Wyoming was coming to an end for now.
Sure enough, as I was almost to my hiking spot, I saw a large form crossing a stream just below me amongst the jungle of tall willows.
It was a sow grizzly and her three “cubs,” who were all about a year and a half old a just about as big as she is. I later learned that in all probability it was a grizzly known as “six ten,” and she even has her own facebook page (see here)! They had been hanging around the south side of Grand Teton National Park, even going out of the park and into some ranch land in search of food (the dry summer has created a food shortage for bears) before being “encouraged” back into the park (see here). The Park Service had closed a road near the visitor center for a few days because she and her cubs, along with a black bear and her cubs, were feeding by a road. Oh, and I guess she was charging at cars.
Closing the road seems like it was a reasonable idea. Cancelling my hike there also a good idea.
I saw them from about 300 meters, and our interaction was peaceful. Once again, seeing such a gigantic beast in the wild defies words. How they managed to disappear into the willows and not be seen again as I watched afterwards for an hour for another peek just defies reality. Where do four giant bears hide? The mystery endures for another time.
I try to keep this blog apolitical, but I am bending my rule for this. I’d love if you took a minute to read this (if you haven’t already seen one of my pleas) – and if you feel moved – to add your name to a petition to help find a better solution for wolf management in Wyoming.
These next two days are critical for the wolves of Wyoming, if you haven’t already please check out the following petition to endorse re-evaluating the proposed management plan by the Wyoming Fish and Game Department which goes into effect in two days. It includes unregulated hunting, trapping, and poisoning of wolves in the majority of the state.
Seeing wild wolves was one of the most amazing experiences of my life. I want my children, and theirs as well, to be able to have that experience and be proud of the choices that we make today to protect these National Treasures of the United States and the Earth. I am not a liberal and I’m not a conservative. I’m a human being that understands that no issue is as simple as to have only two points of view. I understand that hunting is necessary for managing wildlife at this time, but I believe it should be done in a humane way with plans based on science and compassion. Wyoming’s plan includes neither.
summary of issue:
Wolves were removed from the Federal Endangered Species list last year, meaning the management of the species has been turned over to individual States. Montana and Idaho started management last year, and though their plans were approved by the Federal gov, they still include questionable methods that seem to endorse the old West mentality of extermination (outside of any National Parks) – though at least their hunting plans have some limits and regulations. To contrast bad and worse, Wyoming’s proposed “management” plan was so poor that last year the Feds would not turn over the responsibility until revisions were put into place. Any day now though, management will transfer from the Feds to the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, despite very few reasonable revisions.
Wyoming’s current “management plan” includes categorizing the wolf as a “predator species” outside of Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park (and a small area just outside those parks). As a predator species, they will be subjected to unregulated hunting outside of those areas – they will be allowed to be shot, trapped, poisoned, or any other method of destruction, at any time, with no oversight. This plan is not far off the existing plans in states such as Texas that offer a dollar reward for every coyote killed.
Wyoming’s management plan needs further revision, or the wolf needs to remain with some Federal protection. Wyoming is part of this Union of the United States of America, and they are stewards of many National treasures. I believe in States’ rights to govern, but there remain shared resources that belong to all of us. Wyoming should remember that many of their cities and towns exist because of the treasures within their state, and much of their income comes from people who come from outside the state to visit. Let’s come up with a plan that honors the people who have to live with wolves, the wolves, and our future generations.
why should we care?
The proposed plan from Wyoming seems archaic and fear-based, not a plan based on science or even remotely including any compassion for a species that is directly related to animals that many of us keep in our homes and consider parts of our families. Anyone who has a dog or has experienced time with wolves knows that they are intelligent beings, live in close family groups, and experience some feelings similar to our own.
Wolves, and other apex predators, are necessary parts of a healthy ecosystem, just as are all creatures right down to insects and bacteria (see this article). It is proposed that one reason deer ticks and Lyme’s disease is so out of hand in the Eastern United States is that deer populations, along with other prey species, have gone unchecked due to lack of predator influence, allowing the ticks to proliferate.
The methods of “management” proposed by Wyoming include activities that I would associate with a 3rd world country. Let’s create a plan based on science and compassion, something we are proud of as citizens of the United States of America – something that can be a model for big predator wildlife management around the world. Poison and traps are horrific ways for an animal to die, and it is often a slow and painful death. Not only that, traps and poison have many other casualties in the form of other animals that aren’t targeted. I want my children and children’s children to be proud of the choices we make, not embarrassed that we reverted to the very tactics that put the wolf, bison, and many other animals in the position that they are in today.
recent articles regarding this topic:
LA Times click here
New York Times click here
Defenders of Wildlife summary click here
Thanks in advance for taking a moment to raise your voice in favor of a more humane, moderate and compassionate plan for managing these amazing animals!!!
The tracks that I saw two Fridays ago I supposed to belong to a set of three wolves, and three days later I returned there to cast some tracks of their paw prints on the shores of the lake where I had found them. Originally my plan was to cast a bunch of the tracks, then hike around the lake with some left-over plaster to see what other cool tracks I might find.
The wolves had a different plan for me.
I spent a few hours pouring plaster, and most of the good tracks were close to the area where I accessed the lake. It was a hot day, even by Wyoming standards, and there was a pair of swans that took great interest in my affairs. They were alternating feeding with short forays to investigate my work with much curiousity, as I traversed the banks back and forth over an area about a 1/4 mile in distance. I was happy to have them there.
After pouring the plaster, I started off to hike around the lake. As I continued east, the amount of wolf sign just increased. I found more evidence of movement there by the wolves, it still seemed like only three individuals but it was obvious that they used the area with some frequency. Not only were there more tracks, but there were bones and parts of animals that indicated kill sites and also objects that seemed to be used as toys. After my day, I learned that the area was home to a wolf den, so it is likely that many of the bones and feathers that I encountered during my day were the play things of young wolves. These included swan feathers, and I suspected that perhaps there were only two swans because their young had fallen prey to the wolves of the lake.
As I was walking and scoping the ground in the heat of the day, a form caught my eye towards the east side of the lake, about 300 meters away. As I brought my binoc’s to my eyes, I already knew what it was.
It was a wolf.
Languishing on the cool mud by the lake.
It didn’t realize I was there, despite me being generally upwind of it. I stared a bit in disbelief, even though I shouldn’t have been surprised based on the amount of sign that was around. Still, when you actually see a wolf for the first time, in the wild, there is a moment of pause that’s required by the mind and body. We as a species have a long history with the wolf, and like many things, the experience is not quantifiable by the mind. Nor are words capable of expressing it.
Eventually it got up and started scouting the shoreline, and it was then that I realized there were two other wolves in its company. I saw a beautiful red-tailed hawk flight feather on the shore right next to me, and I couldn’t help but smile. Shortly thereafter a red-tail appeared in the sky just to my left, and it seemed to coax me on, giving me the go-ahead to investigate further.
I didn’t want to disturb them, but I saw that it was possible to get a little bit closer while still keeping water in between us. As I tried to get in position, two of them heard/smelled/saw me, and they moved away up a densely vegetated drainage behind them. The third moved a bit slower in the same direction, until all three had disappeared. I waited a bit, then decided to walk further, still having the intention of walking around the lake.
As I got about 50 meters from where they had been, I realized that I needed to pass very close to where they had been laying. In addition to not wanting to bother them further, I realized that I’d be walking, by myself, on a very exposed mud plain, with no where to go and nothing to defend myself. I don’t think wolves would attack me unprovoked, but … they are, umm, wolves. This was real.
As I was trying to decide what to do, the largest of the three reappeared not far away, within 150 meters. She (I’m assuming, based on size) seemed to be relaxed and just investigated the area as I watched her. I was able to get a few more pics as she meandered around.
As I watched her, it started to occur to me that, while it was amazing to see her chilling by the lake, it left two other wolves unaccounted for. And I was essentially pinned in by the lake, the willows, and the hillsides around me. Not that I really expected that they would be trying to flank me and give me a surprise, but why chance it? It was my first experience with wolves, and they are intelligent animals. And big. Very big.
I think it was right around when I took these pictures below that I decided a greater distance between all of us was prudent …
The feeling of having a wild wolf gaze at you is unlike any other feeling. Thrilling, chilling … primal.
After taking these last shots, I started to make my departure, leaving the wolves in peace to their afternoon cool-down. I’m not going to lie … I also picked up a large club-like log, and, neanderthal-style, plodded back along the lakeside from whence I came, with many glances behind me. I may have grunted a few times between wide smiles.
After I gathered up the casts of the tracks and put all my gear back into my jeep, I walked down to the lake to say a good-bye and thank you. As I expressed my gratitude standing on the bank, I heard a peregrine calling as if to acknowledge my sentiments, and I just gave a big smile – and a wolf howl – before I turned and made my way back to camp. It’s a thrill to know that when I howled like a wolf there, wolves were actually hearing it.
Instead of angry neighbors.
On the drive out, my old friend the red-tail called so loudly that I stopped my jeep to find it, and it flew out in front of me as if my escort, leading me for a bit, seeming to celebrate the events of the day with me as it finally landed on a nearby tree and watched me pass.
… there are wolves.
Today was an amazing day – I saw my first wild wolves!!! Three, to be exact. Likely the three that left the tracks that I spotted on Friday and are posted in my previous blog post.
More details to come …
There are wolves that roam very close to where our camp is setup here in the Teton National Forest. These particular tracks are from a bit further north … after a hike to check some remote cameras, I sat next to a reservoir to eat a snack and I stumbled on them. Three wolves started out moving along the edge of the lake, I realized as I backtracked them – towards the end of the trail there was only one.
I was hoping the other two weren’t in the dense willows right next to me as I scouted their trails.
Ok … part of me was hoping they were there.
The politics of wolves in Wyoming is very heated, there is the possibility that soon (after they are removed from the Federally protected status that they currently have until the end of August) in unprotected areas (outside Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Park) that they will be allowed to be shot on sight with no regulation. See this link.
Come on Wyoming, let’s find a reasonable compromise eh?
To be walking where there are wild wolves is an experience I will never forget.